Connecting Our Ways of Knowing

In any other classroom, mention of planting “Three Sisters” might cause confusion. But in Becky Nutt’s science class at Oneida Nation High School, located on a tribal reservation in northern Wisconsin, most students know that the Three Sisters are corn, beans and squash, crops that in Native American tradition are planted together in a single mound.

Guided by Nutt, their questions focus on photosynthesis, the process by which plants like the Three Sisters convert sunlight into the energy they need to grow and produce oxygen. The lesson culminates with each student pretending to be an atom of a particular element in that process— oxygen, carbon or hydrogen—and “form bonds” by holding hands or throwing an arm around a classmate’s shoulders. It’s a fun lesson that resonates, judging by both the enthusiastic participation and the thoughtful entries each student writes afterward in a logbook.

The students know the lesson as part of a “pilot curriculum from UW–Madison,” as Nutt tells them—perhaps the easiest way to explain POSOH (poh-SOH), which is both the Menominee word for “hello” and an acronym for “Place-based Opportunities for Sustainable Outcomes and High Hopes.” The program is being developed in partner- ship with both Oneida and Menominee communities.

But what POSOH really represents is a new way of teaching science. Funded by a $4.7 million grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2011, the program has the mission of helping prepare Native American students for bioenergy and sustainability-related studies and careers. POSOH aims to achieve that by offering science education that is both place-based and culturally relevant, attributes that have been shown to improve learning.

“We’re hoping to help make science relevant to young people,” says CALS biochemistry professor and POSOH project director Rick Amasino. “Bioenergy and sustainability offer an entrée into broader science education.”

For Native American students, sustainability is an obvious fit for science discussion, Amasino notes. The Native American concept of thinking in “seven generations”—how the natural resource management decisions we make today could affect people far into the future—has sustainability at its foundation, and most Native American traditions reflect that value. The Three Sisters, for example, offer a way to discuss not only photosynthesis but also indigenous contributions to our knowledge of agronomy, including how mixed crops support long-term soil health and animal habitat.

An innovative program like POSOH is needed because current teaching methods are not proving effective with Native American students. Native American students score lower in reading and math than their white counter- parts in elementary and high school, and only a low percentage have ACT scores that indicate college readiness, according to “The State of Education for Native Students,” a 2013 report by The Education Trust. Other studies show higher dropout rates and unemployment among Native Americans—and, specifically, that Native Americans are vastly underrepresented in STEM fields as students, teachers and professionals.

Verna Fowler, president of the College of Menominee Nation, sees POSOH as offering a crucial connection. Her tribal community college, along with CESA 8, the state public education authority that includes the Menominee Indian School District, has been a key partner in developing and piloting POSOH. Other leading partners include Michigan State University and, within UW–Madison, the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center.

“POSOH takes you into science in the natural world and helps you relate your concepts and understanding so that you understand science is all around you,” says Fowler. “Sometimes that’s what we miss in our classrooms. A lot of students are afraid of science classes. They don’t realize what a scientific world they’re living in.”

In developing POSOH materials, Amasino serves as the go-to guy for verifying the science. “The main thing I do is work with everyone to keep the science accurate,” he says.

Curriculum development and other POSOH activities are led by CALS researcher and POSOH co-director Hedi Baxter Lauffer, who has a rich background in K–12 science education. In a previous project she worked with California state universities in developing a multiyear math and science education program with diverse ethnic communities in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Alongside her work with POSOH, Lauffer directs the Wisconsin Fast Plants Program, which operates worldwide.

From the start Lauffer saw POSOH as a trailblazing effort. “We wanted to create a model for how a culturally responsive science curriculum can emerge from the community it is serving,” she says. “There’s nothing else like it.”

Lauffer knew her group was on to something during early curriculum design sessions with local educators, Native American community elders and students, particularly when she participated in a talking circle with seventh- and eighth-graders from the Menominee Indian School District. The kids were asked a simple question: “How do you take care of the forest—and how does the forest take care of you?”

“They had all kinds of stories about the plants and animals that live there,” says Lauffer. “They were saying things like, ‘I take my nephew into the forest and teach him to pick up his trash. He needs to know that it’s a beautiful place to play.’ It was clear that their connection to nature was strong—and that’s an opportunity for making science learning relevant and valuable.”

Initial steps for curriculum development included building key institutional partnerships and forming teams for curriculum design that brought in a wide range of Native American voices. Team members include scientists, assessment professionals, and teachers of science, education and Native American culture, some of whom are field-testing the materials.

The group is creating curricula for grades seven through nine. Seventh grade is complete, comprised of a fat lesson book and accompanying DVD with graphics and other enrichment materials. The other grades will be completed by the end of 2015, the project’s final year.

Other POSOH activities include after-school science clubs facilitated by undergraduate interns who also serve as informal mentors. This work is conducted in partnership with the Sustainable Development Institute at the College of Menominee Nation under the direction of Kate Flick BS’06, who studied community and environmental sociology at CALS and now serves as POSOH’s education coordinator.

Thumbing through the seventh- grade lesson book, it is immediately clear that cultural relevance is placed front and center. A typical textbook might pay tribute to cultural relevance with sidebars while the main text carries on with “science as usual.” With POSOH materials, cultural relevance is embedded in the meat of the text.

The seventh-grade curriculum, for example, is called “Netaenawemakanak” —Menominee for “All My Relatives”— and its six units focus on various scientific aspects of the Menominee Forest, such as organisms, microhabitats and ecological interactions. Students learn how such terms as evidence, protocol and conceptual models are used in science and, as a final lesson, how to formulate their own stewardship action plan based on what they’ve learned.

And it’s not just what the students learn, but how they learn it. POSOH incorporates forms of teaching and learning that are rooted in Native American culture, such as:

• Storytelling—Scientific concepts are imparted through stories involving the everyday lives of young Native American protagonists as well as figures from Native American legends and folktales.

• Perspective-taking—Students are invited to look at ecosystems from the viewpoint of animals, plants and other natural resources.

• “Careful noticing”—Students use all their senses when getting to know an environment, paying close attention to what is and is not present. In an exercise in the forest, for example, students are asked not only what they see, smell and hear, but also, “How do the woods make you feel?”

“These are age-old practices in indigenous pedagogy, but they aren’t widely seen as such. They’re so fundamental that I think they’re often overlooked,” says Linda Orie, an enrolled member of the Oneida tribe who taught middle-school science at the Menominee Tribal School. She now works on the POSOH curriculum team.

Orie considers POSOH a huge eye- opener for students. “It’s probably one of the first times they’ve seen anything in science class that has anything to do with Native Americans or Native American contributions to science and forestry,” she says. “Especially for a Menominee, that’s really important because most of them live on the reservation and a lot of their parents are employed through the lumber mill.”

“So they live and breathe the forest, but they don’t often get that instruction in the classroom,” Orie continues. “It was a huge gaping hole in the curriculum when I started teaching at the tribal school.”

By drawing upon indigenous ways of teaching and learning, POSOH helps bridge a gap between how students experience nature and how knowledge about it is imparted in the classroom. POSOH team member Robin Kimmerer, for example, says that as a professor of forest biology and as a Native American, she’s had to work hard to reconcile two distinct perspectives.

“In science we are asked to objectify the world, to view it in a strictly material, intellectual way,” says Kimmerer, who earned her doctorate in botany at UW–Madison and now teaches at the State University of New York. “In indigenous ways of knowing, we’re reminded that we can understand the world intellectually, physically, emotionally and spiritually—and that we can’t really claim to understand something unless we engage all four elements,” she says. POSOH team member Justin Gauthier, an enrolled Menominee who as a teenager attended a Native American boarding school, has come to think of science as another language for indigenous ways of knowing nature. In science, he says, “They’re using numbers, they’re using experimentation. It’s just different language.”

That recognition helped science feel more approachable to him.

“I used to perceive science as being outside of my experience. It was meant for scientists to do in a lab in a white coat. When I started thinking about how it tied into the ways that I was thinking, I felt that it had always been a part of my life and I had just never given it much credence,” he says.

Gauthier, a returning adult student, is earning his bachelor’s degree in English at UW–Madison and plans to teach in a tribal college after earn- ing an MFA in creative writing. He serves POSOH as a curriculum writer. Gauthier suggested naming the seventh- grade curriculum Netaenawemakanak (“All My Relatives”) because it is often uttered as a kind of one-word prayer when entering and leaving the sweat lodge. To him, among other things, the word expresses Native American regard for nature.

POSOH is not only helping fill a gap in science education. Project intern McKaylee Duquain, a junior majoring in forest science, notes that POSOH is filling a gap in cultural knowledge among young Native Americans as well. As an enrolled Menominee who attended tribal schools, Duquain confesses to not knowing what the Three Sisters were until late in high school—and she learned about it on her own.

“It wasn’t even offered when I was a student,” she says. “I’m not the most traditional person out there—I try to practice the traditional ways, but you can only do so much in this day and age. I feel like having that knowledge incorporated into your everyday learning life in school would definitely cement it in more.”

The program’s most enthusiastic ambassadors are the teach- ers and students who have been using it. So far the POSOH curriculum has been taught in 25 Wisconsin classrooms with the participation of some 135 students. Another 140 students have worked with POSOH materials in other settings, such as outreach programs conducted by undergraduate interns and the project’s high school club, called the Sustainability Leadership Cohort.

“I love that the POSOH curriculum brings science to a local level,” says Dan Albrent, a science teacher at De Pere’s Ashwaubenon High School, where he’s been piloting POSOH materials for the past two years. “Students a lot of times wonder why we are even learning all these complex things in science and just want a reason. POSOH does a nice job of bringing in real-life situations and issues that are literally close to home. And never in the curriculum are students sitting and listening to a lecture. They are actively talking and working with real data and real situations to solve problems.”

To him, POSOH represents the future of science education. “I truly believe this is how science should be taught,” Albrent says. “At the moment there is no better alternative for helping our kids realize the importance of learning science for our communities.”

Becky Nutt, of Oneida Nation High School, is just as convinced. She appreciates the program’s emphasis on reading and writing, which is not a given in science class—but important, she notes, in both communicating science and demonstrating understanding.

“Most important from my view is the integration of Native American culture into the materials,” says Nutt. “If, through these materials, we can foster better relationships between our Native students and their communities and other individuals and their communities, then we are on the right track.”

POSOH team member Linda Orie is taking a break from the classroom while earning her master’s degree in curriculum and instruction at UW– Madison—but she plans to return
to teaching in tribal schools and sees POSOH as a life-changing tool to bring with her.

“My career goal is to transform Indian education because it is stuck in this terrible rut,” Orie says. “Working in the tribal school I saw a lot of opportunity for growth. It was heartbreaking to see so much potential and not have colleagues that saw the same. And not seeing as many Native American teachers as there could be or should be in the schools. The kids need the best curriculum and the best teachers, and they’re not getting that right now. I want to be part of the change.”

That Orie, as an Oneida, backs the program so strongly speaks to perhaps the program’s greatest indicator of success—the acceptance it has earned in Native communities.

“We’ve been presenting POSOH to different schools, to different areas, to our boards of education and so on, and they’re very enthused about it— extremely enthused, I must say,” says College of Menominee Nation president Verna Fowler.

That enthusiasm is no accident, but the result of the program being developed within and in partnership with Native communities. Patty Loew, who is a professor of life sciences communication at CALS and an enrolled member of the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Ojibwe, just happened to be on hand during a POSOH presentation on the Menominee Reservation and was heartened by what she saw.

“I’ve been in a lot of situations where UW people try to engage with community members and it’s like pulling teeth for reasons that vary, but often come down to a basic mistrust of researchers,” Loew says. In those encounters, she says, “People are either being polite or they’ll have their arms folded and are just quietly listening or maybe hiding their resentment.”

“That was not the case on this day,” Loew says. “People were really engaged, they were discussing, they had ideas, it was emotional. It was clear to me that the community’s handprints were all over this project. They not only were hosting the research, they had shaped it, they were contributing to it, they were using the materials in their classrooms, they had a lot of pride in it. And I was really impressed.”

POSOH team member Justin Gauthier also knew about the mistrust firsthand—and saw it melt away.

“Historically in Indian Country there’s been this sort of stigma toward outside groups coming into the community, studying groups of people, taking data out of that community—and nary shall the two meet again,” Gauthier says. “But I really like and respect the way that the POSOH process is set up because, while the leadership team
is made up of people from within and without that community, the ideas—the voices at the table—are respected and integrated into the process. I feel like when we finish the project the curriculum and the relationships we’ve built are going to remain strong.”

“And that could be the big takeaway for me from this project,” Gauthier says. “Communities have the right to be wary of people coming in and studying them. But when you have a project like this, where the end result is meant to be a gift for that community, then you really see the beauty of cultures blossom and open up.”

That could be the big takeaway for Amasino and Lauffer as well. They and their team conceived of POSOH as an experiment in developing culturally integrated science curricula in a way that could be applied in various settings around the country.

“Our overarching mission is to build a transformational model for place- based collaborations dedicated to preparing all learners, especially those who are underrepresented in science and science education,” says Lauffer. “These community-based processes are what the project will share more broadly as it draws to a close. We plan to pass on lessons from POSOH to many other communities who can then build on our work and continue improving science teaching and learning.”

To learn more about POSOH, visit http://posohproject.org/. You can also watch the following video: http://go.wisc.edu/posohvideo

Chris Barrett PhD’94

Chris Barrett PhD’94 Agricultural and Applied Economics • In January Chris Barrett began a new position as the David J. Nolan Director of Cornell University’s Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, whose undergraduate and graduate programs rank in the top five nationwide. Barrett takes on that leading role in educating applied economists at a crucial time for the field, he says, citing global challenges posed by the rapid growth in demand for food, feed, fuel and fiber. As a CALS graduate student Barrett found a collaborative network of scholars and practitioners who have been formative in his success as both a teacher and a scholar. Among Barrett’s experiences as a CALS student, he fondly remembers enjoying Babcock ice cream with his children while watching the UW Marching Band practice.

Rogier van den Brink PhD’90

Rogier van den Brink PhD’90 Agricultural and Applied Economics • As a Washington, D.C.-based lead economist with the World Bank in the department of poverty reduction and economic management, Rogier van den Brink works on economic policy and related concerns with a number of countries in Southeast Asia, his region of interest. Recently he helped establish a multimillion-dollar budget in support of relief operations following Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Now a Distinguished Alumni Lecturer with UW-Madison, van den Brink became aware of the “special powers” of agriculture in reducing poverty while a student at CALS, he says, a lesson that his career continues to affirm. When he’s not working, van den Brink pursues music production, an interest he discovered at Amy’s Cafe and Bar in Madison. Sometimes he mixes work and pleasure, most recently when he recorded an album, “Zsa Zsa Exactly,” while in Mongolia. Proceeds from the album will go to Typhoon Haiyan relief efforts.

Diana Fletschner MS’95 PhD’02

Diana Fletschner MS’95 PhD’02 Agricultural and Applied Economics • China, Colombia, Russia, Peru and Uganda are just some of the places in which Diana Fletschner has had the opportunity to work. Fletschner serves as senior director of research, monitoring and evaluation for the Seattle-based NGO Landesa, which works to secure land rights for the world’s poorest populations. Fletschner’s role includes evaluating projects, fostering a network of professionals aimed at strengthening women’s land rights, and supporting national and international advocacy of land issues. For Fletschner, being a CALS student served as a platform for exploring new experiences from around the world as well as the opportunity to build formative relationships with “mentors with a capital M,” as she puts it.

Joseph Glauber PhD’84

Joseph Glauber PhD’84 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Henry C. Taylor, the first chief economist with the USDA, was a Badger—and today another alum, Joseph Glauber, holds that title. Glauber’s duties include preparing the department’s agricultural forecasts and projections as well as advising the Secretary of Agriculture on the economic implications of agricultural legislation. Time spent around the chalkboards discussing and debating economic issues belongs to Glauber’s fondest memories of CALS. He will also forever value the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics for its diversity and an open climate that facilitated forming lifelong friendships. In his free time Glauber bikes 3,500 to 4,000 miles a year, including commuting to work—a hobby, he explains, that balances his love of food.

David Kaimowitz MA’86 PhD’87

David Kaimowitz MA’86 PhD’87 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Challenges facing marginalized rural groups—including chronic poverty, competition over land and environmental degradation—are just some of the issues that David Kaimowitz addresses as the Ford Foundation’s director of sustainable development. His efforts include negotiating grants, designing strategies for meeting the needs of particular groups, and monitoring the effectiveness of those strategies. The importance of institutions and property rights was instilled in Kaimowitz during his time at CALS and has proven relevant in nearly every economic problem the world faces, Kaimowitz notes. Kaimowitz misses the “luxury,” he says, that came with being a CALS student—being able to explore new ideas and theories, hear from professors who are leaders in their fields and browsing endlessly through the library stacks. On that wistful note Kaimowitz encourages current students to take full advantage of the enormous opportunity they have at CALS.

Bruce Larson MA’84 PhD’87

Bruce Larson MA’84 PhD’87 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Bruce Larson, a professor of international health at Boston University’s School of Public Health, considers his research on HIV/AIDS and improving health delivery and services in Africa to be among the most rewarding achievements of his career. His experiences in the field also have demonstrated the global presence of CALS. While on sabbatical in Kenya investigating a particular course of treatment for HIV-infected adults, nearly 20 years after leaving Madison, friends he had met while at CALS were living in Nairobi and were instrumental in Larson’s transition to life in Kenya.

Thomas Wegner BS’81 MS’83

Thomas Wegner BS’81 MS’83 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Thomas Wegner currently serves as director of economics and dairy policy for Land O’Lakes, Inc., a position that calls for him to monitor national, regional and state regulatory issues affecting dairy farmers and Land O’ Lakes as a member-owned cooperative. Wegner works alongside cooperative marketing agencies and strives to keep members informed of changes in federal and state milk marketing regulations. While at CALS Wegner developed an economic analysis approach that has proven invaluable as he evaluates the costs and benefits of federal agriculture policies from the perspectives of a farmer-member, a food processor and a government administrator. In his free time Wegner enjoys walking his dog and patronizing the burgeoning microbreweries of Minneapolis.

David Welsh BS’90

David Welsh BS’90 Agricultural and Applied Economics • As a corn specialist for Crop Production Services, David Welsh works directly with farmers in Wisconsin in an effort to maximize
their corn yields and profits. Welsh’s time at CALS proved integral to his future success. While a student, he was able to participate in two internships that helped jump-start his career, in addition to providing him with invaluable work experience. Welsh also was active in Alpha Gamma Rho, a professional agricultural fraternity. Today Welsh enjoys coaching his children in youth athletics and giving back to CALS through his service with WALSAA.

Gardening for the People

THREE YEARS AGO I was at a complete loss when it came to the grounds surrounding my home. What was I going to do with a huge yard overrun with weeds and invasive species? There wasn’t a single flowerbed, but there were two large crabapples with spotty leaves and burned-looking bark. Our fence line was populated with a tight row of buckthorn and invasive honeysuckle, and there was garlic mustard everywhere.

I learned this sad fact from an arborist we had hired to trim broken branches from the silver maple on our property. Determined to forge ahead and make something of the yard, I had him take out the diseased trees and the large buckthorn and honeysuckle bushes. After he finished, nothing remained but a few very old and overgrown lilacs, two peony plants, and a few bushes around the perimeter
of our lawn.

I was determined to turn my yard into something beautiful, but it was clear I needed help. Trial and error did little but show me how much I had to learn. As I began to investigate ways to acquire gardening expertise, people would mention advice from “master gardeners,” a title that conjured images of retired ladies in wide-brimmed hats and gloves tending gardens with lots and lots of rose bushes. I also thought of master gardener training as a kind of finishing school for skilled gardeners rather than a program that welcomed beginners.

I was wrong on both counts, as I learned from Mike Maddox MS’00, a CALS horticulture alumnus who directs the statewide Master Gardener Volunteer Program—a service of UW-Extension—from an office in the Department of Horticulture in Moore Hall. Master gardeners are, in fact, Master Gardener Volunteers—or MGVs for short—with the emphasis on “volunteer,” Maddox notes.

It’s a role that has become more salient over the years. “The volunteer requirement became a way for MGVs to assist and offset the barrage of gardening questions coming to Extension offices,” Maddox says. “We emphasize the volunteer aspect of ‘Master Gardener’ to distinguish it from a commercial endorsement, to differentiate it from a garden club—and to de-emphasize the expectation of the need to be an ‘expert’ on all subjects.”

Jessica Bateman BS’05 MS’11

Jessica Bateman BS’05 MS’11 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Jessica Bateman’s experiences at CALS, which included a health and nutrition study abroad program in Uganda and a course called World Hunger and Malnutrition, were formative in her decision to pursue a career in agricultural economics. Today Bateman is the nutrition technical quality coordinator for Mawa, a USAID-funded Feed the Future project with roots in Zambia. Collaboration with her Zambian colleagues and interacting with communities in the field are the most rewarding aspects of her career, she says. Bateman’s role in developing community-based approaches to improving nutrition allows her to witness small changes that greatly benefit the health of children, in particular. Those approaches include promoting consumption of locally produced foods, cooking demonstrations and training field staff in nutritional lessons for community outreach.

Jerry Steiner BS’82

Jerry Steiner BS’82 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Until retiring in 2014, Jerry Steiner served for a decade as the Monsanto Company’s executive vice president of sustainability and corporate affairs. His goal was to help farmers produce more food while conserving valuable resources throughout the dozens of countries in which Monsanto conducts business. His work involved ensuring that farmers had the opportunity to choose new technology, including genetically modified seeds. One of his proudest moments was forging partnerships with the Gates Foundation that led to delivering drought-tolerant corn to African farmers. Steiner worked with CALS faculty to co-found Field to Market, an NGO that brings together farmers, agribusinesses, and food and fiber companies to promote sustainable production. Now based in St. Louis, Steiner returns to Madison every year for Badger football.