Antibiotics Off the Beaten Path

As more antibiotic-resistant “superbugs” emerge, it’s clear that we desperately need new antimicrobial drugs. Yet, over the past couple of decades, antibiotic discovery has largely been stagnant.

“The reality is there’s almost no new antibiotics that are developed. And that’s because pharmaceutical companies have decreased their investment—in part because of the rediscovery issue,” explains bacteriology professor Cameron Currie.

The “rediscovery issue” refers to the fact that soil has historically been the prime source of new antibiotics—but it seems to be tapped out. When scientists screen soil microbes for new antibiotics, they keep finding the same compounds over and over again.

Currie is part of a team that is looking elsewhere.

Currie and his colleagues have been focusing their efforts on microbes that are associated with insects, plants and marine life from all around the United States, funded by a $16 million grant from the National Institutes of Health that was awarded in 2014.

“One of the major hurdles is finding new compounds, and that’s where we’re really excelling,” says Currie, a co-principal investigator on the grant. His partner is David Andes in the UW–Madison School of Medicine and Public Health.

At the front end, the work involves some good old-fashioned bioprospecting. Currie’s group, which is in charge of the terrestrial sphere, has gathered more than 2,000 flies, aphids, caterpillars, bees, ants and other insects, as well as mushrooms and plants, from locales near and far, including Alaska, Hawaii and Wisconsin’s Devil’s Lake.

Back at the lab, things get high-tech pretty quickly. Microbes are isolated from the samples and tested for antimicrobial activity. Promising strains undergo genetic sequencing that allows Currie’s group to determine how likely they are to produce novel antibiotic compounds. From there, other scientists involved in the grant go on to test the most promising compounds in a mouse model of infection. This approach has already yielded some exciting drug candidates.

“We have 9,000 strains to screen, and we have already found some new compounds that are effective at combating infections in mice and have low toxicity,” says Currie.

With so many samples to process, Currie’s group adopted bar code technology to help them keep track. They have a bar code reader—like you’d find in a grocery store— connected to a lab computer that they use to scan petri dishes, look up samples and add new data. For each microbial strain they’ve isolated, the database has photos of the “host” insect or plant, GPS coordinates for the collection site, assay results, genetic sequence and much more.

At this point, Currie feels confident that the project will pay off, and he’s eager to see one of the group’s compounds go into human clinical trials.

“If you find one new antibiotic that gets used in treatment, it’s a major success. You’re saving people’s lives,” Currie says.

The Inner World of Athletes

So many things typically distinguish accomplished athletes from the rest of us—greater strength and endurance, better balance, faster reactions—but one of the more surprising differences is that, according to dental studies, they also tend to get more cavities.

This intriguing phenomenon was the subject of a capstone course in microbiology this past spring, offering undergrads a chance to be part of a burgeoning worldwide scientific effort while using cutting-edge technology.

There are trillions of microbes in the human body; the community of microbes that lives in each of us is our microbiome. As more and more research focuses on microbiomes, it’s becoming clear they play a significant role in human health and wellness. Microbiology 551 students worked to add to that body of research using a next-generation DNA sequencer manufactured by the California-based company Illumina.

“It’s only our department and maybe one or two in California that are doing hands-on work with undergraduates in teaching this technique,” says co-instructor Melissa Christopherson. Christopherson teaches the course with Tim Paustian, both faculty associates in the Department of Bacteriology. “Having students conduct meaningful research with these modern techniques makes them more competitive in the job market and better able to navigate the field of microbiology.”

Students were tasked with comparing the oral microbiomes of athletes and nonathletes, using saliva samples. They sampled a range of students, from UW athletes to occasional exercisers to students who hadn’t exercised for at least five weeks. Once students collected and prepared the samples—including their own oral microbiomes—they sequenced the DNA and determined which microbes were present in each sample.

With so many samples, the students were able to look beyond the question of exercise to test other hypotheses they developed themselves.

“We wound up taking the same data set and asking other questions,” explains Samantha Gieger, who graduated in May with a BS in microbiology and genetics. “In groups of four or five, we looked at the effects of dairy, caffeine or using an electric toothbrush.”

Students presented their projects at a poster session last semester, and their work is currently being analyzed for publication. Their findings will become part of the growing research into microbiomes. Student Sophie Carr BS’16 and Christopherson were invited to the White House last spring for a summit announcing the launch of the National Microbiome Initiative.

As a capstone class, the course offered a research experience requiring students to integrate diverse bodies of knowledge to solve a problem. And it quickly proved invaluable as students considered next steps in their careers.

“I’ve learned so much—how to go about research, what to do when encountering a problem. Troubleshooting is such an important technique,” says Isaiah Rozich BS’16, then a senior majoring in microbiology and Spanish. “Figuring out which solution is best takes a lot of time, and it opened my eyes to what life as a researcher will be like. While it’s overwhelming, I think the end result is gratifying.”

PHOTO: On the case: Students compared the oral microbiomes of athletes to figure out why athletes get more cavities.
Photo by Sevie Kenyon

From Space to the Field

Images captured from satellites orbiting 440 miles above the Earth tell a powerful, richly detailed story about crop yields—revealing the lushness or deficits of fields with surprising precision.

With the help of about 100 farmers so far as part of a citizen science project, researcher Phil Townsend and his team hope to coax even more valuable information from the satellite photos and change how farmers’ yields are reported and analyzed.

“The reporting of crop yields is now done at the county level with information confidentially reported by farmers to the USDA,” says Townsend, a professor of forest and wildlife ecology. “Counties can be very large. We now have the ability to analyze yields at the field level with these images, giving us much more accurate and granular data.”

By tracking the greenness of fields from the satellites and analyzing climate data, researchers hope to identify impacts of insect pests, crop diseases and weather events like frost, tornados or hail.

First, however, they needed to test their yield estimates against farmers’ actual yields. So Townsend’s team developed a website—yieldsurvey. wisc.edu—that allows researchers to confidentially crowdsource crop yield information. Townsend is encouraging even more submissions.

Farmers can enter their field’s location by dropping pins on a Google map, along with the type of crop and the actual crop yield for as many seasons as possible. The information is then analyzed and compared to estimates developed in Townsend’s lab.

“Our yield estimates are within about 15 percent of what the farmers report,” Townsend says. “Our target is to get that down to 10 percent. If you’re a farmer, the closer you can get to that could be the difference between making money and breaking even.”

Citizen science is a two-way street—it helps researchers tweak their estimates based on real data, and those more accurate numbers can help farmers be more productive and better managers.

Ultimately, Townsend says, the satellite technology and climate data, refined by knowing the actual yields from participating farmers, have the potential to predict crop yields well before harvest time.

Farmers see promise in the new approach, says Kevin Erb, a UW–Extension agronomist based in Green Bay.

“Farmers benefit from using remote sensing technology,” Erb says. “If we know early in the season that we have the potential for above-average yields, that can affect the types of pesticides and fertilizers that you use during the season.”

Being able to make decisions during the season based on this sort of predictive data could increase profits $50 or more per acre, Erb says.

Townsend’s team is cooperating with the USDA and hopes to snag funding to broaden the project. The effort is an example of the Wisconsin Idea at work, Townsend says.

“We have to connect with our constituents, and that’s where crowdsourcing and citizen science comes into play,” he says. “Farmers are participating in the science, and they see the benefits. It’s building trust.”

IMAGE: This map looking at soybean crops in the Upper Midwest shows how yields are predicted to vary even within the same county. Researchers are trying to verify their estimates by working with farmers to determine their actual yields.
Courtesy of Aditya Singh/UW–Madison CALS

Student-Created Quaffs

Red Fusion, a wine produced by Campus Craft Winery, a collaboration between the CALS-based Fermentation Sciences Program and Wollersheim Winery.   Photo by Sevie Kenyon

Red Fusion, a wine produced by Campus Craft Winery, a collaboration between the CALS-based Fermentation Sciences Program and Wollersheim Winery.
Photo by Sevie Kenyon

The wine, Red Fusion, was produced through the Campus Craft Winery, a collaboration between the Fermentation Sciences Program and Wollersheim Winery. Students enrolled in FS375, a course taught by food science professor Jim Steele and enologist Nick Smith, were responsible for not just producing the wine, but also naming the product and developing the label. The project yielded 230 cases of wine this year, and Steele hopes to up that number to over 1,000 cases next year. Proceeds will help support the food science department’s wine-related outreach, instruction and research efforts.

The beer, S’Wheat Caroline, was produced through the Campus Craft Brewery, a collaboration between the Fermentation Sciences Program and the Wisconsin Brewing Company. Developed by students Daniel Deveney (mechanical engineering), Jenna Fantle BS’16 (food science) and Eric Kretsch (microbiology), the American wheat ale was declared the winning brew among a field of student-crafted competitors by a panel of expert judges. This is the second beer released through this collaboration. Inaugural Red, released in May 2015, has been very successful in the marketplace.

Both beverages are available at Union South and Memorial Union. Additionally, the beers are available on tap and in retail stores statewide. Due to the relatively low volume of product available, beyond campus Red Fusion is available for purchase only at Wollersheim Winery.

Dairy Dash Embodies the Spirit of Alpha Gamma Rho

This is one race where cows are welcome—or, rather, people dressed in cow suits.

In just three years, the Dairy Dash has become a campus institution that imbues health and fun times with a serious purpose. The event is held in honor of John Klossner, a CALS sophomore who died of a head trauma following an accident at the 2013 Wisconsin State Fair. All proceeds from the 5K run are donated to the Brain Injury Association.

“John was a gregarious soul who always enjoyed a good laugh. He made friends easily. People naturally gravitated toward him,” recalls his older sister, Kristin Klossner.

Klossner was making his mark at UW–Madison, in particular through his service as a member of Alpha Gamma Rho, the largest social-professional agricultural fraternity on campus. Now marking 100 years at UW–Madison, Alpha Gamma Rho promotes academics along with providing leadership and networking opportunities and fostering fellowship among its members.

Nothing embodies Alpha Gamma Rho’s mission more than the Dairy Dash, which members conceived of and run in Klossner’s honor. Each May over the past three years, some 300 people have turned up to raise money for the Brain Injury Association and honor Klossner’s spirited and giving life. The bovine attire donned by some runners celebrates Klossner’s passion for cows.

Alpha Gamma Rho has been a fixture on campus since April 29, 1916, and to date has had some 1,650 young men as members. The fraternity has been home to some of the top agriculture students on campus—students who continually step up to volunteer and advance agriculture.

One example is the Competitive Edge, an event founded more than 40 years ago to help incoming students and their parents become acquainted with campus and learn about the opportunities available at CALS. The Competitive Edge and other Alpha Gamma Rho scholarship events award some $20,000 in scholarships each year. That number should grow as the fraternity embarks on a $1 million fundraising campaign to expand its educational endowment.

To celebrate the fraternity’s rich history and bright future, more than 375 members and their guests—traveling from 24 states and Canada— gathered at the Madison Concourse Hotel in Madison this past April to renew their collective vision for the future.

Meanwhile, current members of Alpha Gamma Rho have added a deep and meaningful chapter in their history with the establishment of the Dairy Dash.

“After losing John, I learned how close of a family the agriculture industry is,” says Kristin Klossner. “I think he is with us every time we are at the Dairy Dash. We love what the AGR brothers have done and continue to do. The Dairy Dash helps to bring people together.”

The Greenhouse as a Public Classroom

Just as some seeds yield tomatoes, carrots and lettuce, others grow community and partnership.

In a greenhouse in the northern Wisconsin town of Park Falls, all of those seeds are taking root with the help of CALS horticulture graduate student Michael Geiger, horticulture professor Sara Patterson and a team of dedicated local leaders.

“The greenhouse has opened doors to making healthier food choices, to education about gardening in local schools—and it’s given the university a presence in Park Falls,” says Geiger, who grew up in Arbor Vitae, some 50 miles away.

Geiger’s involvement with the Flambeau River Community Growing Center started four years ago when a friend in the area approached him for advice. Her group was seeking funding for a greenhouse project, and Geiger teamed with Patterson to identify possible revenue sources. They developed a proposal for the Ira and Ineva Reilly Baldwin Wisconsin Idea Endowment at UW–Madison.

By fall 2013, construction had begun on a 25-by- 50-foot vail-style greenhouse, built by community volunteers on a vacant lot donated by Flambeau River Papers just north of the mill. Plans call for the facility to eventually be heated with waste steam from the mill.

The Flambeau River Community Growing Center has gained popularity with community members and school groups interested in learning about plants and gardening. “It’s a greenhouse, but it’s also a classroom,” says Geiger.

Learners include children from the Chequamegon School District, who start seeds in the greenhouse and nurture seedlings until they can be transplanted to their own school gardens. Area 4–H groups grow plants and tend them in raised beds just outside the greenhouse. Master Gardener classes are held at the facility, and community workshops have included such topics as square-foot and container gardening as well as hydroponics. Kids have been delighted with sessions on soil testing and painting their own flowerpots.

“It’s clearly a benefit to build a connection between UW–Madison and the community, for the community itself—people from ages 3 to 90—and for the local schools,” Patterson says.

Community leaders and institutions have joined to fuel the center’s success. Its chief executive officer, Tony Thier, recently retired from Flambeau River Papers; UW–Extension has provided valuable educational and technical support; and volunteer opportunities draw professionals from various companies in the area. Park Falls attorney Janet Marvin helped the center gain nonprofit status last fall.

Thier says the center provides needed education for area residents. “It’s been very beneficial,” he says. “When I got involved, it really became a passion. I wanted to learn more about gardening and increase my skill. We try to involve the whole community.”

Geiger says the project has helped him in his academic career as he learned about project planning, gave presentations about the center at two national academic conferences and writes scholarly articles about his work there.

“I’ve been able to see this process through from an idea to reality,” says Geiger. “It’s been really rewarding.”

PHOTO – Michael Geiger (right) in the greenhouse at a hydroponic salad table workshop. The greenhouse features in-floor radiant heating and custom growing tables made of locally purchased white cedar and built by volunteers.

Photo credit – Michael Geiger

The Road from Farm to Market

Consumer demand for regionally produced food is on the rise. But transportation and distribution logistics for mid-size shippers, distributors and farmers can be tricky. These supply chain partners are looking for ways to more efficiently move products from Wisconsin’s farms to markets, while upholding many of their customers’ sustainability values.

That’s where the CALS-based Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems (CIAS) comes in. CIAS is working with university and private-sector partners to bring regionally grown food to urban markets while growing rural economies and addressing the environmental impacts of food freight.

“When people think of local food, they think of farmers markets and community-supported agriculture,” says Michelle Miller BS’83, associate director of programs for CIAS. “While these direct markets are the gold standard for connecting us with the people who grow our food, they don’t address the need to get more high-quality regional products into grocery stores, restaurants and schools.”

Consumers tend to believe that food is more sustainable if it travels a short distance from farm to table. However, a USDA study found that compared to direct markets, the large truckloads and logistical efficiencies found in the conventional food system sometimes use less fuel per food item transported.

Helping mid-size farmers move full truckloads of their products into wholesale markets is one way to build a more resilient regional economy. However, farmers face numerous challenges when shifting from direct to wholesale marketing. Product aggregation is one major hurdle, as wholesale public markets for assembling farmers’ wares have largely disappeared from the landscape.

The Wisconsin Food Hub Cooperative (WFHC), founded in 2012, helps fill that gap by providing sales, marketing and logistical support for its 37 farmer-owners, with sales of $1.7 million in 2015 and anticipated sales of $2.5 million in 2016.

CIAS helped WFHC implement retail product quality specifications and food safety requirements. Access to CALS expertise in those areas has made a big difference for their business, according to WFHC development director Sarah Lloyd.

“Most retail outlets require growers to obtain voluntary food safety certifications,” says Lloyd. “The help we’ve received in working through this maze of regulations has been critical.”

According to Miller, much more work is needed to help Wisconsin growers move their products into regional metro markets. CIAS is investigating fair trade strategies to provide equitable compensation for farmers. The center is working closely with city, county and regional partners to increase food processing and related food systems economic development in southern Wisconsin. CIAS is also researching more sustainable truck fleets using alternative fuels, hybrid electric engines and day cabs.

“We can gain efficiencies across the food system, at the farm level and in the way we move food to markets,” says Miller. “Ultimately we want to make it easier for consumers to support Wisconsin farmers.”

Tara Roberts-Turner, a founding farmer and business manager of the Wisconsin Food Hub Cooperative, loads fresh produce onto a truck bound for Chicago.

Photo credit – Tara Roberts-Turner 

More Sustainable Feedstock for Ethanol

A six-year Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) study on the viability of different bioenergy feedstocks recently demonstrated that perennial cropping systems such as switchgrass, giant miscanthus, poplar, native grasses and prairie can yield as much biomass as corn stover.

The study is significant for addressing one of the biofuel industry’s biggest questions: Can environmentally beneficial crops produce enough biomass to make their conversion to ethanol efficient and economical?

Since 2008, research scientists Gregg Sanford and Gary Oates, based in the lab of CALS agronomy professor Randy Jackson, have worked with colleagues at Michigan State University (MSU) to cultivate more than 80 acres of crops with the potential to become feedstocks for so-called “second-generation” biofuels, that is, biofuels derived from non-food crops or the nonfood portion of plants. They’ve grown these crops at the CALS-based Arlington Agricultural Research Station and at MSU’s Kellogg Biological Station.

“We understand annual systems really well, but little research has been done on the yield of perennial cropping systems as they get established and begin to produce, or after farmland has been converted to a perennial system,” says Oates.

To find out basic information about how well certain crops produce biomass, Sanford and Oates tested the crops across two criteria: diversity of species, and whether a crop grows perennially (continuously, year after year) or annually (needing to be replanted each year).

Highly productive corn stover has thus far been the main feedstock for second-generation biofuels. And yet perennial cropping systems, which are better equipped to build soil quality, reduce runoff, and minimize greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere, confer more environmental benefits.

Corn, when grain is included, proved to be most productive over the first six-year period of the study at the Wisconsin site, but giant miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar and native grasses were not far behind. At the MSU site, where soil is less fertile, miscanthus actually produced the same amount of biomass as corn (grain included) in the experiment, with poplar and switchgrass within range.

“All of this means that, at large scales and on various soils, these crops are competitive with corn, the current dominant feedstock for ethanol,” Sanford says.

Now in the midst of the study’s eighth year, Sanford says the study will continue for the foreseeable future.

“We know that perennial systems can prevent negative impacts such as soil erosion and nitrate leaching, and that they also provide habitat for native species that provide beneficial ecosystem services,” Sanford says. “But there are still a lot of questions we want to answer about soil processes and properties— questions that take many years to answer.”

Researcher Gregg Sanford stands before a plot of giant miscanthus at Arlington.

Photo credit – Matthew Wisniewski

The Futures Market—and Students’ Futures

Using real-world commodity-trading software and armed with simulated trading experience in agricultural markets, a number of CALS students are finding paths to jobs after graduation.

“We prepare students by providing the knowledge of the trading software used by professionals and an understanding of how these sometimes-volatile markets work in real time,” says Sheldon Du, a professor of agricultural and applied economics.

Du says that the market for agricultural business management majors is promising—and students’ experience with professional software platforms and hands-on simulated commodity trading makes them more attractive job candidates.

Du has taught his spring undergraduate class, Commodity Markets, since 2012. His students learn about economic concepts related to commodity futures and options contracts, pricing mechanisms, and principles and techniques for using derivatives to hedge price risk. They also learn about commodity trading, wherein futures contracts of commodities—such as grains, dairy products and energy—are bought and sold through organized exchanges to generate returns or to manage price risks.

Last year, Du—with the enthusiastic backing of his department—received a grant from UW– Madison’s Educational Innovation initiative to expand the class experience to include an optional 10 weeks of training during the following fall on technical analysis using X_TRADER® software, a professional trading platform that was donated to CALS in 2014 by Trading Technologies International, Inc. The school has since migrated to Trading Technologies’ new TT® platform, which became commercially available in 2015.

Students can also go on to compete in the CME Group Trading Challenge, a simulated trading competition that pits hundreds of college teams from around the world against one another as they make real-time commodity trading decisions. Du’s students participated in the event in 2015 and then again this year.

Competing in the challenge requires students to use electronic trading software to execute trades on the CME Globex trading platform, offering students added experience with real-world tools and techniques. This spring, seven UW–Madison students on two teams took part in the competition.

Andrew Berger BS’15, who was on one of two trading teams last year, went on to become a risk analyst for Henning and Carey Technologies in Chicago after graduating.

“The fundamental knowledge that I gained about futures and options contracts, hedging techniques and financial market analysis prepared me well for the interview,” says Berger, who returned to campus this spring to speak to Du’s students.

Brad Jaeger BS’16, a fresh grad who landed a job as a grain merchandiser at Wisconsin’s Country Visions Cooperative, says his two years of competing in the challenge, plus the academic grounding he received, were instrumental in launching his career.

“We learned fundamental analysis, and although we never advanced in the trading competition, we received a lot of great live trading experience,” says Jaeger, who led a team this year.

Exposing students to the theory of commodity markets, along with practical trading situations and tools, helps them get a taste for the profession and the experience to impress prospective employers, says Du.

“I am always looking for ways to increase the trading component, which is important for students’ understanding of the markets,” Du says. “It’s also important for their professional futures.”

PHOTO – Students in the 2016 CME Group Trading Challenge included (left to right) Jackson Remer, Brad Jaeger, Carly Edge, Cory Epprecht and Sam Seid, with agricultural and applied economics professor Sheldon Du (far right).

Photo credit – Sheldon Du

New Frontiers for No-Till

New Frontiers for No-TillWhen Jason Cavadini, assistant superintendent of the CALS-based Marshfield Agricultural Research Station, first started working at the station in spring 2013, he was told that no-till wouldn’t work in the area, with its heavy, poorly drained soils. But he still wanted to give it a try.

“Here in central Wisconsin, a big concern is, what do we do with the water? How do we get it to drain better? If no-till allows the soil to do that naturally, in our opinion it’s the best way,” says Cavadini. His interest in the method stems from experience on his family’s farm near La Crosse, where they have successfully used no-till planting for nearly 20 years.

Conventional tillage often involves turning and pulverizing the soil before planting with multiple passes of a tractor to chisel-plow, disk and smooth out the field. There are many advantages to this approach, including setting back weeds, helping the soil to dry and ensuring good seed-to-soil contact. However, it’s also fraught with issues such as soil compaction and erosion.

No-till, on the other hand, involves the use of a planter that seeds directly into the soil without the complete disruption and inversion of the surface. This alternative option, which has been shown to work well in other areas with other soil types, has reduced environmental impacts and helps build long-term soil structure. There’s also an economic benefit. “Fewer trips across the field with equipment means less fuel used,” notes Cavadini. “We have cut fuel usage and labor associated with spring planting by more than 50 percent since implementing no-till.”

Making the switch to no-till, however, involves some trial and error. Cavadini thought, “What better place to give it a try than the Marshfield station?”

“We started a group we’re calling Central Wisconsin No-Tillers,” Cavadini says. “We set a planter here on the station with different combinations of no-till tools. After we finished planting in the spring of 2014, we invited people to the station and told them what we found with our research planter. About 10 farmers showed up, but it was a very productive meeting, and we tried to address things that they were questioning.”

When Cavadini held a meeting for the group the following year, 46 farmers appeared.

So far, the no-till approach is working well at Marshfield, and the research station has expanded its use to include more crops. Corn was the starting point—“We experienced some of our highest corn yields ever on the station this year in no-till fields,” notes Cavadini—and now about 80 percent of the station’s plantings are done with no-till, including soybeans, wheat and alfalfa.

“A long-term, no-till soil that is firm at the surface but takes in water readily is what we are really trying to achieve here,” Cavadini says. “If we are successful, that will solve a lot of the challenges that central Wisconsin farmers face here every year.”

PHOTO—Jason Cavadini has had success with no-till on crops at the Marshfield Agricultural Research Station.

Photo by Sevie Kenyon BS’80 MS’06

Keeping Us Safe

It’s hard to believe now, but when the Food Research Institute (FRI) was established in 1946—two years prior to the founding of the World Health Organization—botulism and salmonellosis were poorly understood, and staphylococcal food poisoning was just beginning to be elucidated. Many otherwise well-known diseases were only alleged to be food-borne, and the causes of many known foodborne illnesses had yet to be established.

Now the oldest U.S. academic program focused on food safety, FRI moved from the University of Chicago to the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1966 under the leadership of bacteriology professor Edwin “Mike” Foster.

And ever since, FRI has served as a portal to UW–Madison’s food safety expertise for food companies in Wisconsin, in the U.S. and around the world. Housed within CALS, the institute is an interdepartmental entity with faculty from bacteriology, animal sciences, food science, plant pathology, medical microbiology and immunology, and pathobiological sciences, drawing not only from CALS but also from the School of Medicine and Public Health and the School of Veterinary Medicine.

FRI offers a wealth of educational opportunities to both undergraduate and graduate students. Since 2011, FRI has coordinated its Undergraduate Research Program in Food Safety, which provides students with hands-on experience in basic science and applied investigations of food safety issues. FRI faculty and staff have trained hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students, post-docs, visiting scientists and research specialists throughout the years, and FRI alumni have gone on to hold positions in industry, government and academia across the country and abroad.

In keeping with the Wisconsin Idea, FRI’s reach extends well beyond campus boundaries through industry partnerships, especially with its 40 sponsor companies. The Applied Food Safety Lab and laboratories of FRI faculty collaborate with food processors to identify safe food formulations and processing techniques. The institute also provides outreach and training to both food companies and the greater scientific community through meetings, short courses, conferences and symposia.

“FRI is an outstanding example of how a public-private partnership can benefit the academic mission of UW–Madison and the needs of the Wisconsin food industry,” says FRI director Charles Czuprynski.

During the past 70 years, FRI has made many insights into the causes and transmission of foodborne diseases. Early on, FRI research established methods to identify and detect staphylococcal enterotoxins. Work conducted by FRI scientists pioneered understanding of the molecular mechanisms of botulinum toxin production and led to the harness of the toxin for biomedical uses. FRI faculty are leaders in mycotoxin research and have made important contributions to understanding the shedding of E. coli O157 by cattle, survival of Salmonella in stressful conditions and the role of Listeria in foodborne disease. FRI research also identified the health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid in foods of animal origin and conditions that might result in formation of undesirable components in processed foods.

Looking to the future, FRI research is investigating novel mechanisms to prevent food-borne pathogen growth in meat and dairy products, interaction of plant pathogens and pests with human food-borne pathogens, food-animal antibiotic alternatives, and the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

FRI will celebrate its 70th anniversary at its 2016 Spring Meeting May 18–19 at the Fluno Center on the UW–Madison campus. There’s also a reception on May 17 at Dejope Hall, near the grounds of the original FRI building. For more information about FRI and anniversary events, visit fri.wisc.edu.

Cows for Kids

Ruth McNair, a senior editor at the CALS-based Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems, recently published a charming children’s book titled Which Moo Are You?

The picture book, illustrated by McNair’s daughter Molly McNair, introduces young readers to a variety of calves, each one distinguished by a key personality trait, as they explore, play, eat and sleep on a farm. Characters include a shy calf, a curious one, a friendly calf and many others. The story ends with a positive message about how we are much more than the labels that others assign to us.

The book, appropriate for ages 2–6, is full of fun rhymes and engaging pencil and watercolor illustrations.

Ruth McNair lives on a farm that hosts grazing dairy heifers during the growing season, and has also been the home of sheep, goats, donkeys, chickens, rabbits and even a llama. Seeing animal-loving kids at farm events inspired her to write the book, she says.

Molly McNair is a costume designer and maker, with a special interest in historical costume. She has a variety of artistic interests and a love of animals.

The book is available for $16.99 from No Bull Press at nobullpressonline.com.