1. What is it? Gluten is a substance composed of two proteins—gliadin and glutenin—that are found in the endosperm (inner part of a grain) of wheat, rye, barley and foods made with those grains, meaning that gluten is widespread in a typical American diet.
2. Is it harmful? People who suffer from celiac disease, an autoimmune digestive disorder, are unable to tolerate gluten. Even a small amount of it (50 milligrams) can trigger an immune response that damages the small intestine, preventing absorption of vital nutrients and potentially leading to other problems such as osteoporosis, infertility, nerve damage and seizures.
3. How widespread is celiac disease? An estimated 1.8 million Americans have celiac disease; as many as 83 percent of those suffering from it remain undiagnosed or are misdiagnosed with other conditions. Another 18 million (about 6 percent of the population) do not have celiac disease but suffer from gluten sensitivity. They report such symptoms as diarrhea, constipation, bloating and abdominal pain—which also are symptoms of celiac disease—but do not experience the same intestinal damage. For those with celiac disease or gluten intolerance, a gluten-free diet is beneficial.
4. Should you cut gluten from your diet even if you don’t have these conditions? Probably not. Restriction of wheat in the diet often results in a decrease in the intake of fiber at a time when most Americans consume significantly less than the recommended amount. Low-fiber diets are associated with increased risk of several acute gastrointestinal diseases (examples: constipation, diverticulosis) and chronic diseases such as heart disease and colon cancer. If not done carefully, gluten-free diets also tend to be low in a number of vitamins and minerals.
5. Don’t diagnose yourself. The broad range of symptoms associated with celiac disease and gluten sensitivity may be due to other causes; self-diagnosis and treatment of perceived gluten intolerance may delay someone from seeking more appropriate medical care. The only way to know for certain if you have celiac disease is from a blood test for the presence of specific antibodies followed by a biopsy of the small intestine. If you are experiencing the symptoms described above, please seek medical care.
Beth Olson is a professor of nutritional sciences. Her principal research areas concern breastfeeding support and improving infant feeding practices in low-income families.
When the managers of University Housing Dining and Culinary Services (DCS) decided a few years ago to go above and beyond state requirements in employee food safety certification, they turned to
the CALS Department of Food Science for help.
The “ServSafe” certification program, produced by the National Restaurant Association, is offered nationwide. By Wisconsin state law, food service operations need at least one staff member to be certified.
But DCS has expanded that requirement as a matter of quality improvement. “We wanted to provide the people on our front lines more tools to help us assure food safety at all our service points,” says DCS associate director Julie Luke. “Over the last three to five years we’ve probably doubled the number of staff who have food safety training built into the credentials for their position.” Even for positions where certification is not required it is offered as a professional development option, notes Luke.
DCS has some 100 full-time classified staff preparing and serving an average of 95,000 food orders a week through residence halls, catering and other venues on campus, assisted by an army of 1,200 student workers.
Expanding training was and is a tall order—but DCS has an able partner in food science instructor and registered dietitian Monica Theis, who not only teaches the two-day certification class but also recruits her undergraduate dietetics students to serve as tutors. A number of food service employees have low literacy or English as a second language. For those groups both the instruction and certification exam can pose a challenge.
Dietetics junior Heang Lee Tan worked one-on-one with one such employee, helping her take notes, prepare notecards and take a practice exam.
“It was really eye-opening for me to see how hard it was to implement a food safety training program. I saw how literacy became such a challenge,” says Tan. “It makes me more sensitive to the great diversity of staff working in an organization. Having that knowledge will make me a better employee or manager in the future.”
Student tutors like Tan have boosted the success rate of DCS employees in passing the exam, notes Theis. “It’s been an amazing experience.”
Theis has involved undergrads in other food safety efforts. For example, Lori Homes BS’13 partnered with DCS and University Health Services to design an online food safety training module now used by DCS student workers, who formerly had to get that training in person. Homes also served as a student supervisor at DCS.
The food safety collaboration is one of many between DCS and food science. Theis trains DCS staff on a number of food-related topics, including allergies. DCS administration offers work opportunities to dietetics students interested in one day joining large-scale food and dining operations. Recently DCS executive chef Jeff Orr worked with food science students on a contest to create a new hamburger recipe for Gilly’s Frozen Custard restaurants.
Theis welcomes those collaborations. “We have opportunities right here to partner with campus units and contribute to our little community,” she says. “Our students can make a tremendous difference.”
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Chris Barrett PhD’94 Agricultural and Applied Economics • In January Chris Barrett began a new position as the David J. Nolan Director of Cornell University’s Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, whose undergraduate and graduate programs rank in the top five nationwide. Barrett takes on that leading role in educating applied economists at a crucial time for the field, he says, citing global challenges posed by the rapid growth in demand for food, feed, fuel and fiber. As a CALS graduate student Barrett found a collaborative network of scholars and practitioners who have been formative in his success as both a teacher and a scholar. Among Barrett’s experiences as a CALS student, he fondly remembers enjoying Babcock ice cream with his children while watching the UW Marching Band practice.
Rogier van den Brink PhD’90 Agricultural and Applied Economics • As a Washington, D.C.-based lead economist with the World Bank in the department of poverty reduction and economic management, Rogier van den Brink works on economic policy and related concerns with a number of countries in Southeast Asia, his region of interest. Recently he helped establish a multimillion-dollar budget in support of relief operations following Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Now a Distinguished Alumni Lecturer with UW-Madison, van den Brink became aware of the “special powers” of agriculture in reducing poverty while a student at CALS, he says, a lesson that his career continues to affirm. When he’s not working, van den Brink pursues music production, an interest he discovered at Amy’s Cafe and Bar in Madison. Sometimes he mixes work and pleasure, most recently when he recorded an album, “Zsa Zsa Exactly,” while in Mongolia. Proceeds from the album will go to Typhoon Haiyan relief efforts.
Diana Fletschner MS’95 PhD’02 Agricultural and Applied Economics • China, Colombia, Russia, Peru and Uganda are just some of the places in which Diana Fletschner has had the opportunity to work. Fletschner serves as senior director of research, monitoring and evaluation for the Seattle-based NGO Landesa, which works to secure land rights for the world’s poorest populations. Fletschner’s role includes evaluating projects, fostering a network of professionals aimed at strengthening women’s land rights, and supporting national and international advocacy of land issues. For Fletschner, being a CALS student served as a platform for exploring new experiences from around the world as well as the opportunity to build formative relationships with “mentors with a capital M,” as she puts it.
Joseph Glauber PhD’84 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Henry C. Taylor, the first chief economist with the USDA, was a Badger—and today another alum, Joseph Glauber, holds that title. Glauber’s duties include preparing the department’s agricultural forecasts and projections as well as advising the Secretary of Agriculture on the economic implications of agricultural legislation. Time spent around the chalkboards discussing and debating economic issues belongs to Glauber’s fondest memories of CALS. He will also forever value the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics for its diversity and an open climate that facilitated forming lifelong friendships. In his free time Glauber bikes 3,500 to 4,000 miles a year, including commuting to work—a hobby, he explains, that balances his love of food.
David Kaimowitz MA’86 PhD’87 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Challenges facing marginalized rural groups—including chronic poverty, competition over land and environmental degradation—are just some of the issues that David Kaimowitz addresses as the Ford Foundation’s director of sustainable development. His efforts include negotiating grants, designing strategies for meeting the needs of particular groups, and monitoring the effectiveness of those strategies. The importance of institutions and property rights was instilled in Kaimowitz during his time at CALS and has proven relevant in nearly every economic problem the world faces, Kaimowitz notes. Kaimowitz misses the “luxury,” he says, that came with being a CALS student—being able to explore new ideas and theories, hear from professors who are leaders in their fields and browsing endlessly through the library stacks. On that wistful note Kaimowitz encourages current students to take full advantage of the enormous opportunity they have at CALS.
Bruce Larson MA’84 PhD’87 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Bruce Larson, a professor of international health at Boston University’s School of Public Health, considers his research on HIV/AIDS and improving health delivery and services in Africa to be among the most rewarding achievements of his career. His experiences in the field also have demonstrated the global presence of CALS. While on sabbatical in Kenya investigating a particular course of treatment for HIV-infected adults, nearly 20 years after leaving Madison, friends he had met while at CALS were living in Nairobi and were instrumental in Larson’s transition to life in Kenya.
Thomas Wegner BS’81 MS’83 Agricultural and Applied Economics • Thomas Wegner currently serves as director of economics and dairy policy for Land O’Lakes, Inc., a position that calls for him to monitor national, regional and state regulatory issues affecting dairy farmers and Land O’ Lakes as a member-owned cooperative. Wegner works alongside cooperative marketing agencies and strives to keep members informed of changes in federal and state milk marketing regulations. While at CALS Wegner developed an economic analysis approach that has proven invaluable as he evaluates the costs and benefits of federal agriculture policies from the perspectives of a farmer-member, a food processor and a government administrator. In his free time Wegner enjoys walking his dog and patronizing the burgeoning microbreweries of Minneapolis.